The phase-in and phase-out of European emissions of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b under the Montreal Protocol: Evidence from observations at Mace Head, Ireland and Jungfraujoch, Switzerland from 1994 to 2004

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Atmospheric Environment, Volume 41, Issue 4, p.757 - 767 (2007)





European emissions, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), Montreal protocol


The mixing ratios of HCFC-141b (1,1-dichlorofluoroethane) and HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been rising steadily in baseline air at Mace Head, Ireland over the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. These HCFCs are widely used replacements for the chlorofluorocarbons phased out under the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments. Analysis of the HCFC content of regionally-polluted air arriving at Mace Head from the European continent shows that European emissions reached a peak during 2000–2001 and have declined subsequently, following the phase-out in their usage. European emissions of HCFC-141b have been further constrained by observations at the High-Alpine Jungfraujoch site. The reductions are consistent with the phase-out of HCFC production and use from the year 2001 onwards mandated by European regulations designed to exceed the requirements of the Montreal Protocol.